Cutelyst 1.3.0 released

Only 21 days after the last stable release and some huge progress was made.

The first big addition is a contribution by Matthias Fehring, which adds a validator module, allowing you to validate user input fast and easy. A multitude of user input types is available, such as email, IP address, JSON, date and many more. With a syntax that can be used in multiple threads and avoid recreating the parsing rules:

static Validator v({ new ValidatorRequired(QStringLiteral(“username”) });

if (v.validate(c,Validator::FillStashOnError)) { … }

Then I wanted to replace uWSGI on my server and use cutelyst-wsgi, but although performance benchmark shows that NGINX still talks faster to cutelyst-wsgi using proxy_pass (HTTP), I wanted to have FastCGI or uwsgi protocol support.

Evaluating FastCGI vs uwsgi was somehow easy, FastCGI is widely supported and due a bad design decision uwsgi protocol has no concept of keep alive. So the client talks to NGINX with keep alive but NGINX when talking to your app keeps closing the connection, and this makes a huge difference, even if you are using UNIX domain sockets.

uWSGI has served us well, but performance and flexible wise it’s not the right choice anymore, uWSGI when in async mode has a fixed number of workers, which makes forking take longer and user a lot of more RAM memory, it also doesn’t support keep alive on any protocol, it will in 2.1 release (that nobody knows when will be release) support keep alive in HTTP but I still fail to see how that would scale with fixed resources.

Here are some numbers when benchmarking with a single worker on my laptop:

uWSGI 30k req/s (FastCGI protocol doesn’t support keep conn)
uWSGI 32k req/s (uwsgi protocol that also doesn’t support keeping connections)
cutelyst-wsgi 24k req/s (FastCGI keep_conn off)
cutelyst-wsgi 40k req/s (FastCGI keep_conn on)
cutelyst-wsgi 42k req/s (HTTP proxy_pass with keep conn on)

As you can see the uwsgi protocol is faster than FastCGI so if you still need uWSGI, use uwsgi protocol, but there’s a clear win in using cutelyst-wsgi.

UNIX sockets weren’t supported in cutelyst-wsgi and are now supported with a HACK, yeah sadly QLocalServer doesn’t expose the socket description, plus another few stuff which are waiting for response on their bug reports (maybe I find time to write and ask for review), so I inspect the children() until a QSocketNotifier is found and there I get it. Works great but might break in future Qt releases I know, at least it won’t crash.

With UNIX sockets command line options like –uid, –gid, –chown-socket, –socket-access, as well as systemd notify integration.

All of this made me review some code and realize a bad decision I’ve made which was to store headers in lower case, since uWSGI and FastCGI protocol bring them in upper case form I was wasting time converting them, if the request comes by HTTP protocol it’s case insensitive so we have to normalize anyway. This behavior is also used by frameworks like Django and the change brought a good performance boost, this will only break your code if you use request headers in your Grantlee templates (which is uncommon and we still have few users). When normalizing headers in Headers class it was causing QString to detach also giving us a performance penalty, it will still detach if you don’t try to access/set the headers in the stored form (ie CONTENT_TYPE).

These changes made for a boost from 60k req/s to 80k req/s on my machine.

But we are not done, Matthias Fehring also found a security issue, I dunno when but some change I did break the code that returned an invalid user which was used to check if the authentication was successful, leading a valid username to authenticate even when the logs showed that password didn’t match, with his patch I added unit tests to make sure this never breaks again.

And to finish today I wrote unit test to test PBKDF2 according to RFC 6070, and while there I noticed that the code could be faster, before my changes all tests were taking 44s, and now take 22s twice as fast is important since it’s a CPU bound code that needs to be fast to authenticate users without wasting your CPU cycles.

Get it!

Oh and while the FreeNode #cutelyst IRC channel is still empty I created a Cutelyst on Google groups:!forum/cutelyst

Have fun!

Cutelyst 1.3.0 released

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